Just after the release of the Google Search Engine Ranking Factors 2015 the search engine optimizers of MOZ have released special ranking factors regarding locally oriented websites.
In general the ranking factors for local seo are similar to those concerning the general ranking at the Google search engine. On page signals, a well structured website, have been found to be most important. These are followed by the quality of referring links. But to local seo even these most important ranking factors have particularities. This means that in addition to well choosen headers and titles the name of a city or region have to be part of it. The same concerns referring links or reviews and the like, which are in general of more value if naming a location or coming in from a nearby location.
Additionally local seo has various special ranking factors like mentions and reviews at specific business oriented social media services. Here a local relation improves the influence of such activities as well. Hence the behavior of searchers and visitors is rated by Google (click through rates within search results or time spent on a website etc.) even the origin of a search query and the distance related to a service has become a ranking factor in local seo.
The complete study on locial seo including all ranking factors is available by the following link: The 2015 Local Search Ranking Factors.